It is the duty of a local government to construct and manage the public sewage system to appropriately treat the sewage produced within its jurisdiction, while the Ministry of Environment (the national government) supports the budget and establishes the related management standards. As of 2013, the national government granted 637.4 billion KRW for 315 public sewage systems including the construction and improvement of 283 sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) and the construction of 32 sewage sludge treatment facilities. The existing STWPs are being improved by installing the advanced treatment processes and increasing the efficiency of digestion tanks. A local government formulates a 20-year Sewage Management Master Plan and reviews it every five years. New sewage systems are constructed in accordance with the plan.
The sewage system has been continuously distributed to the whole nation and the coverage reached 91.6% as of the end of 2012. It is still necessary, however, to narrow the gap between urban areas and agricultural & fishing villages. In 2012, the sewage service rate was 94.6% in urban areas while it was only 62.1% in agricultural and fishing villages.
The government has subsidized 200 to 250 billion KRW annually since 2007. The cumulative grants by 2013 was 1.6 trillion KRW for 3,067 facilities. The sewage system in agricultural and fishing villages will be continuously expanded to address the service gap between urban and agricultural areas.
Sewage pipelines are being constructed and maintained steadily. As of 2012, the total length of sewage pipeline was measures 123,309km, which corresponds to 75.8% of the planned length in the Sewage Maintenance Master Plan. The sewer pipe distribution rate is 100% in Seoul while it is and only 66.8% in some agricultural and fishing villages. Therefore, it is necessary to narrow the regional gap.
As climate change results in more frequent intensive rainfall events and the subsequent risk of flooding, it is necessary to improve the surface drainage capacity of public sewage systems. So, the institutional reforms and the expansion of sewage infrastructures are being carried out. (For details see Current Policy Focus (2) Prevention of Urban Flooding)
Agricultural and fishing villages which have scattered pollution sources require excessively costs for constructing sewer pipeline networks. Private sewage treatment facilities are constructed at the areas where the construction of public sewage system is inappropriate.
The rule changes in 2002 expanded the of buildings that are required to construct the private sewage treatment facilities. It resulted in the rapid increase in the number of private sewage treatment facilities As of 2012, a total of 416,075 private sewage treatment facilities are being operated outside of the sewage service zone. Thus, following systems were introduced for more efficient management of the facilities. From 2007, any private sewage treatment facility of a certain size or larger must have a designated specialist manager and it must be constructed by professional service companies.
Excreta treatment facilities handle most of the wastes generated from non-flush toilets and the residue from cleaning septic tanks and sewage treatment facilities. Because public SWTPs are constructed in most rural (si and gun) areas, it is more efficient to treat the excreta in connection with the public SWTPs rather than to construct new excreta treatment facilities. The wastes and residues can be transported to and treated by public SWTPs after primary treatment at the discharging facilities. Otherwise, the excreta treatment facility can be constructed within the SWTP site and it can be connected with the SWTP. As of 2012, a total of 196 excreta treatment facilities (35,812 tons per day) are being operated nationwide, and approximately three-quarters of them are connected to the public SWTP.
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Last modified : 2017-12-12 08:38
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