Workplace is classified from classification 1 to 5 depending on the emission amount of the pollution substances from the air pollution emission facilities.
Allowable Emission Standard System
Allowable Emission Standard for Air Pollutants
- Allowable emission standard for air pollutants emitted from the discharging facility regulates the gaseous substances and the particles separately starting from January 1, 2015 based on the definition of Separate Table 8 of the Enforcement Regulations of the Clean Air Conservation Act (Clause 1, Article 16 of the Clean Air Conservation Act, Article 15 and Separate Table 8 of the Enforcement Regulations of Clean Air Conservation Act).
- Allowable emission standard for air pollutants to be applied from the year 2015 will be separately applied by using common applying standard or enforced standard that is to be used in case single emission amount of specified harmful substance exceeds tons per year
Exceptions for the discharging facilities that transmits the measuring result to the control center of the remote sensing system of smoke stack
- For the discharging facilities that transmits the measuring result to the control center of the remote sensing system of smoke stack by installing the remote sensing system of smoke stack (Clause 1, Article 32 of the Clean Air Conservation Act, and Item 2, Clause 1, Article 17 of the Enforcement Ordinance of Clean Air Conservation Act), the excess of the allowable emission standard will be determined depending on “the exceptions (Item 3 in Separately Table 8 of the Enforcement Regulations of Clean Air Conservation Act) for the discharging facility that transmits the measuring result to the control center of the remote sensing system of smoke stack (Article 15 of Enforcement Regulations of the of Clean Air Conservation Act and Item 3 in Separately Table 8).
Allowable Emission Standard According to Ordinances
- For metropolitan cities, provinces or special self-governing provinces (hereafter Cities), if it is recognized that the province environmental standard cannot be maintained or the air quality of air environment regulated area needs to be improved, more stringent allowable emission standard than the allowable emission standard in the Clean Air Conservation Act can be set (only for the case that the authority is devolved to the governor of the Cities) (Clause 3, Article 16 of the Clean Air Conservation Act).
- If there are any areas that the allowable emission standard according to ordinances is not applied in the cities or provinces where the standard is applied, then the allowable emission standard according to ordinances will be applied to the discharging facility installed or to be installed in those areas (Clause 6, Article 16 of the Clean Air Conservation Act)
Odor Management Policy
The Malodor Prevention Act revised in February 2005 defines the oder as the “pungent gaseous substances such as hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan, amine and others that gives displeasure and disgust by stimulating the sense of smell”. Therefore, odor means that the bad smell which gives harm to the pleasant emotional life and health of human being by stimulating the sense of smell while existing in combined status of various components. This makes people reveal the self-awaking response such as disgust, headache, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing and allergies by promoting the mental & physiological stresses. Also, it gives much of displeasure even with low concentration, which brings a lot of civil complaints.
In many of the cases, civil complaints for the odor occurs because of the provincial conditions such that the industrial and residential areas are mixed together. In the meantime, another reason is that the lack of research and investigation for the odor causing materials generated from the odor vulnerable business (lack of analyzing technique and tools can be another reason) and of management policy for the sources of odor and odor causal factors.
In order to solve this problem, the Ministry of Environment is responsible to manage the odor independently by enacting the Malodor Prevention Act separately (odor has been regulated by following ｢Clean Air Conservation Act｣ since 2005), and the ｢Comprehensive Policy for Malodor Prevention (2009∼2018)」 was established and executed to construct the suitable odor managing system that fits to the domestic status.
Civil Complaints for the Odor
Civil complaints for the odor has increased by approximately 13% each year. The number of civil complaints for the odor was 4,302 in 2005 but it was increased to 8,372 in 2011, which was increased by approximately 2 times than 2005. If we review the status by each province, the biggest 5 metropolitan councils are Gyeonggi, Incheon, Gyeongnam, Seoul and Jeonbuk in descending order, and 5,552 complaints (66.3%) occurred in these areas.
If we review by primary local government, the 5 biggest are Seo-Ku in Incheon, Yongin-City in Gyeonggi, Namyangju-City, Chungju-City in Chungbuk, and Changwon-City in Gyeongnam in descending order, and 2,754 complaints from top 10 primary local government covers 32.9% of the total complaints of the whole nation.
Establishment and Implementation of Comprehensive Policy for Malodor Prevention
Since the civil complaints for oder is being sharply increased, differentiated managing system needs to be established considering the characteristics of the generated odor, and the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Policy for Malodor Prevention (2009∼2018) in 2008 and promoted the detailed reduction plan that supplements the problems of previous odor reduction plan systematically. This odor control comprehensive policy is the first legal one prepared for the odor management area, and it specifies the roll between the nation and local government. This policy is consisted of 3 practice goals such as odor discharging source management, development of odor reduction technology and system reorganization, and 5 implementation strategies such as business place odor management, aesthetic odor management, livestock odor management, development of odor control technologies based construction and rationalization of odor managing system with the vision that “creates healthy and pleasant quality of life”.
Detailed implementation plans for each area of the comprehensive policy for malodor prevention is as follows.
Firstly, business place odor management project includes the customized technology support and follow up management, odor control facility installation and preparation of technical instruction, technical diagnosis obligation for the odor of the priority management business place, installation of odor reduction facility in petty business places and provide the improvement fund, development and distribution of industrial classification odor management manual.
Secondly, aesthetic odor management project includes the odor reduction plan for the non-regulation target odor discharging facility, green buffer zone supporting project for the improvement of civilian’s living environment, promotion of odor from daily life reducing project, technical diagnosis obligation for the odor of public environmental facilities etc.
Thirdly, livestock odor management project includes the support of odor reduction technology for stock farmers, support of odor management for the buried places of stamping out stocks. development and supply of stock breeding odor reducing and controling technology etc.
Fourthly, development of odor management technology based construction project includes establishment of base for the real time odor monitoring system, expansion of the continuous measuring network for the designated odor materials at site and preparation of the integrated managing system for the odor discharging business places, promotion of joint control facility installation project for the odor discharging facility concentrated area etc.
Lastly, rationalization of odor managing system includes the improvement of odor process test method, preparation of the verification system for the odor reduction technology, cultivation of odor management specialists, improvement of application method of odor emission quality standard etc.
In the meantime, the Ministry of Environment improved and supplemented the Comprehensive Policy for Malodor Prevention (January 2012) to reflect the new odor reduction policies for the odor from daily life by considering the life quality improvement and characteristics of the civil complaints while hosting the “Advancement of odor management forum” in 2011 and collecting various opinions from specialists. Important improvements include the plan for applying the primary cause of odor to the environmental impact assessment system and preparation of standard plan, promotion of odor improvement project on the public environmental facilities, trade off study for the complex odor emission quality standard, reliability for the odor process testing method, establishment of the base for the real time odor monitoring system, preparation of selecting guideline of deodorizing apparatuses for the odor discharging facility in daily life etc.
Enactment and Modification of 「Malodor Prevention Act」
Unlike the air pollution, odor causing materials are various and complex, and since they break out locally and momentarily and then disappeared. In this regard, effective odor management method inevitably reaches the limit.. Therefore, odor was separated from the ｢Clean Air Conservation Act｣ and ｢Malodor Prevention Act」 was enacted on February 9, 2004 and was enforced on February 10, 2004. In order to manage the odor more effectively, from the 「Malodor Prevention Act」, the management target was changed from ‘facility’ to ‘local area’ and the quantity of the designated odor materials are increased to 22 from 8 which means 14 kinds are added, and also, the application period was expanded annually. In the meantime, in order to improve the reliability of the measurement, the lack of objectivity and inconvenience of quantification of ‘direct sensory method (one of the odor measurement methods)’, ‘air dilution olfactory method’ was introduced, and in order to supplement the limit of the ‘air dilution olfactory method’, instrumental method was introduced as well, and all of the effort is to improve the measurement method using scientific techniques.
Based on the operation of Malodor Prevention Act, regulation for the recommendation or release of the odor management area designation was prepared, and also, Malodor Prevention Act was modified on February 5, 2011 to manage the odor discharging source effectively with compulsory technical diagnosis for odors in public environment facilities. In the meantime, following the enforcement of Malodor Prevention Act, customized technical support for the Korea Environment Corporation has been being progressed since February 20, 2006 to improve the odor reduction performance of petty odor discharging business places and the air quality of odor vulnerable area through the technical diagnosis and support for the industrial classification process condition of odor discharging business places, discharge characteristics, preventive technology with optimized efficiency, operation of the processing technology etc.
Odor Management by Local Area
Odor management policies suitable for the local area situation and condition can be promoted by enforcing the authority and responsibility of local government, and the governors of cities & provinces or the chairman of metropolis can appoint the odor managing area and can set up the strict emission quality standard. Based on this, 25 areas including Ulsan, Mipo, Onsan national industrial complex etc. were appointed on the 17th of March 2005 and since then have been being managed as the odor management area.
The governors of cities or the chairman of metropolis needs to check whether the odor is being managed properly matching to the appointment purpose of the odor management area by investigating the concentration in the air and the level of odor of designated odor material periodically and also, they can set up the strict emission quality standard.
In case odor discharging facility is to be installed within the odor management area, it is compulsory to report the odor discharging facility to the governors of cities or the chairman of metropolis with the plan to prevent the odor such as odor control facility so that the odor is to be discharged with the amount less than emission quality standard.
In order to support the odor management operation of the local government, the Ministry of Environment researched the odor managing policies for the petty business places and prepared the odor management instruction, and promoted the technical support for the odor vulnerable facilities. Also, the Ministry of Environment is making and distributing the odor management manual for each industry and promoting the construction project for green buffer zone in industrial complex from 2003 to reduce the inconvenience of the civilians around the place and to create pleasant environment by reducing the odor induced to the residential area.
Supporting Odor Reduction Technology and Follow-up Management
In order to support the odor management operation of local government, the Ministry of Environment has been providing a continuous technical support and follow up management to the small petty business places since 2006. This is to improve the odor management ability by supporting the customized technology for the odor discharging business places and to improve the environment of the industrial complex and business places by reducing the odor. Also, the effectiveness of odor management policy is being improved by analyzing & evaluating the results of the technical support and applying them to the national integrated odor control policies.
In the meantime, the conference for the cases of advanced odor management was hosted and there was a chance to share the information with the odor specialists from local government, academic world and industry. From this conference, excellent cases and odor reduction technologies were spread over, and also there was a chance to introduce the technical support to petty business places and technical diagnosis system for the public environment facilities, all of which are conducted by Korea Environment Corporation.
Policies for Vehicle Exhaust Gases
In order to reduce one of the most serious air pollution problems (particle materials) in the capital area, the production of car related reduction measures are being promoted continuously to enforce the production car emission quality standard. However, it is pointed out that nobody can be free from the limit without reducing the particulate materials discharged from the diesel vehicles.
Therefore, the Ministry of Environment is applying more stringent emission quality standard to the warranty expired diesel vehicles (particular diesel vehicles) based on the ｢Special Act on Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement｣, and if the vehicles do not meet this standard, they should attach the reduction device (DPF, p-DPF, DOC), or they have to modify the engine to low pollution one or early scrappage.
Since 2004, low pollution devices have been attached to the diesel vehicles in government offices and non-profit corporation, and the low pollution engine or early scrappage demonstration project has been promoted. Low pollution modifications for 715,000 vehicles have been completed until 2012.
In the meantime, since 2010, Low Emission Zone (LEZ) has been allocated at the air quality management area and the operational restriction will be applied to the vehicles without low pollution measures such as exhaust gas reduction device.
Total Air Pollution Load Management System
Introduction of Total Air Pollution Load Management System in Business Places
The purpose of the total air pollution load management system is to improve the atmospheric environment of the capital area and the ground of this system is Special Act on Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement which was enacted in December 2003. The demonstration project was conducted in 100 business places during May 2006~March 2007. After the total air pollution load management system was conducted in 118 Class 1 business places in July 2007, the management system was expanded to approximately 300 Class 2 business places in 2010. The target air pollutants for the management are nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides.
The total air pollution load management system is the advanced environment management system that controls the emissions of pollution materials by converting the existing post concentration (ppm, ㎎/㎥) management to preventive total amount (kg) management, and the purpose of this system is to control the air pollution materials within the proper environment limit. This is an excellent environment management policy that reduces the energy use and air pollutants simultaneously by inducing the pollution materials to be emitted within the allocated amount by allocating the allowable emissions by year. This system is being executed separately for the local total maximum load of metropolitan council and total maximum load of business places.
The Requirement of the Total Air Pollution Load Management System in Business Places
Comparing the air quality of capital area with main cities of OECD countries, Korea ranks the lowest and the pollution is 2 ~ 3 times higher than the others. In the meantime, the excess rate of the ozone warning, nitrogen dioxide and fine dust is more serious than the other cities. Moreover, the annual social cost for the air pollution reached to KRW 10 trillion, which is a very urgent issue to improve.
Therefore, in order to improve the air quality, the Ministry of Environment has been promoting the special measure to improve the air quality of the capital area since 2005, but the effect of various measures is not good at all because of the increase of pollution sources such as vehicles and business places. For the case of business places, since there is a limit with the existing post concentration management due to the increase of the pollution source despite of the enforcement of allowable emission standard of air pollutants, preventive advanced environment managing system - Total air pollution load management system for business places - was introduced and conducted in July of 2007.
Progress of the Total Pollution Load Management System
The total air pollution load management system for business places was planned to be conducted by setting the target materials such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and dust. However, for the case of ‘dust’, since it is difficult to set the allocation standard of emission amount and the contribution rate is very low compared to the whole emission amount, the allocation of total allowable emission amount was postponed in December 2007 and the ’capital area air environmental management committee’ decided that dust is excepted from the management target substances in August 2009. Dust was finally excepted from the target substances through the modification of the Special law and this system is being applied to nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxides now. Also, the enforcement plan for the allocation of total allowable emissions for business places was prepared during July~December of 2007 and was enforced on January 1, 2008 with the 118 business places where the annual emission is more than 30 tons (nitrogen oxides) and 20 tons (sulfur oxides).
Results of the Total Air Pollution Load Management System
In order to settle the first stage total air pollution load management system for the Class 1 business places fast, the Ministry of Environment educated the target business places and hosted the briefing session periodically. They also supported the technologies, which induced the improvement of air pollution preventive facility and early installation of optimized preventive facilities etc. Finally, total allowable emission amount for each business place has been being observed and as a result, 25,779 tons of nitrogen oxides and 2,358 tons of sulfur oxides have been reduced. In the meantime, the net benefit was analyzed to be KRW 107.4 billion, which means that the economic effect is very high as well.
Since 2010, the business places are expanded to 300 by including the mid size business places (Class 2) that emits 4 tons of air pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides) a year. It is analyzed that the Class 1 and 2 business places emit approximately 60% of air pollutants that point pollution sources in the capital area emit
Contents of the Total Air Pollution Load Management System in Business Places
In order to settle the total air pollution load management system fast and manage effectively, the Ministry of Environment established and operates the ‘total air pollution load management database’ - the 2-way online management system between government and business places. With this online system, the air pollution emission for each business place is calculated every month and the information is transmitted on a real time basis from the Smokestack Tele-Monitoring System (TMS) installed on the outlet (chimney) and grasp the situation such as the status of air pollutants emission in the capital area. Also, in order for the early settlement and stable management of the total air pollution load management system, scientific and effective follow up management is required, and the 118 class 1 business places that have been in the total air pollution load management system since 2008 are being evaluated that they are in stable management stage, and the class 2 business places that have been included in the management target since 2010 are being enforced with the total air pollution load management system related education, briefing session and technical support.
Emissions Trading of Air Pollutants
In the meantime, the total air pollution load management system is being reinterpreted as the flexible environment controlling method instead of regulation while providing the incentives such as the relaxation of existing fuel regulation and allowable emission standard, and the business places that reduced the emission by installing the facilities such as optimized preventive facilities etc. can create benefits as well through the Emissions Trading. In order to vitalize the Emissions Trading, the Ministry of Environment has been operating the ‘electronic trading system for the emissions of air pollutants’ since December 2009 and as a result of the effort for the revitalization of Emissions Trading such as the preparation of the announcement related to the Emissions Trading in December 2011, the trading is sharply increased such that 18 trades (1,010 ton/KRW 29 mil) in 2008, 80 trades (2,296 tons/KRW 164 mil) in 2010 and 88 trades (2,296 tons/KRW 164 mil) in 2011.
Future Promoting Plan
In order to be prepared for the termination of first allocation (2008~2012) of the first stage business places during 2011~2012 and for the 2nd allocation during 2013~2017, rational allocation coefficients and standard are being prepared while reviewing the types and efficiency of the proper preventive facilities, the problem of the existing allocation method and the change of the technology of the preventive facility and comparing the technologies between the domestic and abroad air pollutants optimized preventive facilities.
Last modified : 2013-10-28 18:39
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